Hydroxymethylfurfural content and physicochemical properties of the caramel samples enriched with different dietary fibres


QUALITY ASSURANCE AND SAFETY OF CROPS & FOODS, cilt.7, ss.277-285, 2015 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 7 Konu: 3
  • Basım Tarihi: 2015
  • Doi Numarası: 10.3920/qas2013.0284
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.277-285


Caramel is widely used in foods such as ice cream, biscuits, cake, chocolate and chocolate sauce, etc. Some toxic compounds like hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are formed during production of caramel. Therefore, decrease of HMF content of the caramel is important for human health. In the present study, different dietary fibres (inulin types, wheat, apple, lemon, pea and oat fibres) were added to the caramel formulation to reduce HMF content. In addition to the HMF content of the model caramel samples, physicochemical properties such as colour, pH, brix and a(w) values of the samples were determined. Both of the HMF content and physicochemical properties were significantly affected by fibre addition (P<0.05). High performance (HP) and high performance for high temperature process (HPX) type inulins were convenient for incorporation when considering the HMF content and colour properties of the samples. Principal component analysis was also applied to correlate variables. PC1 and PC2 explained approximately 85.58% of the variation in the data set. According to the result of this study, HP and HPX inulin samples might be added to caramel formulation or acid and sugar containing products to decrease HMF content.

Many by-products from food industries including grape pomace are generally used as animal feed or fertilisers. Grape pomace is considered as a valuable by-product for oil extraction, phenolics, tocopherols and antibacterial agents. Actually, the waste products could provide supplements for the food and drug industry. Our objective was to determine details of the nutritive values of grape pomaces of five commercial Turkish grape varieties to consider possible applications in the food and feed industry. In this study, some chemical properties and minerals contents, namely potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), zinc, copper, selenium, cobalt, chrome, lead and cadmium, of the grape pomaces were investigated. The results indicated that grape pomaces were generally acidic in nature with pH values of 3.82-4.30. Pomace is usually poor in sugar content and the variety of grape significantly affects the sugar content of the pomaces. Crude fibre was the major constituent of the grape pomace and ranged between 53.20 and 67.50%. Mineral analyses also showed that pomace samples had high K, Ca, Mg, Na, P and Fe contents. Consequently, the pomace samples of the grape varieties could be considered functional foods with high biological values.