Effects of Orange Leaves Extraction Conditions on Antioxidant and Phenolic Content: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

Uysal S., Cvetanovic A., Zengin G., Durovic S., Zekovic Z., Aktumsek A.

ANALYTICAL LETTERS, vol.51, no.10, pp.1505-1519, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 51 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/00032719.2017.1382501
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1505-1519
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


In the last few years, bioactive components or their extraction techniques are gaining special interest in scientific areas. In this framework, orange leaves were used for preparation of extracts with high content of biologically active compounds. To optimize the extraction process, three levels and three variables of Box-Behnken design with response surface methodology were applied. Investigated responses were the total phenolic content (TPC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Independent variables were methanol concentration (10-90%), temperature (20-60 degrees C), and extraction time (60-180min). Experimentally obtained results were fit into a second-order polynomial model with multiple regression. Analysis of variance was used to estimate model fitness and determine optimal conditions for processing. Estimated optimal conditions were 90% methanolic solution, 60 degrees C and 180min using these parameters; the predicted values of investigated responses were 43.19mg GAE/g (GAE: gallic acid equivalents), 43.04mg TE/g (TE: trolox equivalents), 139.34 and 93.76mg TE/g for TPC, DPPH, CUPRAC, and FRAP, respectively. The obtained optimal conditions could be considered as an alternative strategy for developing novel functional products.