Fatty Acid and Proximate Composition of Bee Bread

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Kaplan M., Karaoğlu O., Eroğlu N., SİLİCİ S.

FOOD TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, vol.54, no.4, pp.497-504, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.17113/ftb.
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.497-504
  • Keywords: bee bread, fatty acid composition, proximate composition, monofloral pollen, pollen analysis, STORED POLLEN, CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION, CASTANEA-SATIVA, NUTRITIVE-VALUE, HONEY-BEES, COTTON, OMEGA-3-FATTY-ACIDS, ANTIOXIDANT, NECTAR
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Palynological spectrum, proximate and fatty acid (FA) composition of eight bee bread samples of different botanical origins were examined and significant variations were observed. The samples were all identified as monofloral, namely Castanea sativa (94.4 %), Trifolium spp. (85.6 %), Gossypium hirsutum (66.2 %), Citrus spp. (61.4 %) and Helianthus annuus (45.4 %). Each had moisture content between 11.4 and 15.9 %, ash between 1.9 and 2.54 %, fat between 5.9 and 11.5 %, and protein between 14.8 and 24.3 %. A total of 37 FAs were determined with most abundant being (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic, (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic, hexadecanoic, (Z)-octadec-9-enoic, (Z)-icos-11-enoic and octadecanoic acids. Among all, cotton bee bread contained the highest level of omega-3 FAs, i.e. 41.3 %. Unsaturated to saturated FA ratio ranged between 1.38 and 2.39, indicating that the bee bread can be a good source of unsaturated FAs.