The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sleep parameters of patients with Cushing syndrome (CS) at the time of diagnosis and 12-months after treatment. Thirty four newly diagnosed patients with endogenous CS (17 with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, 17 with adrenal CS) and 23 controls with similar age were included in the study. Two polysomnography (PSG) recordings were performed; one at the time of diagnosis and the other 12 months after resolution of hypercortisolemia. Control group had only baseline PSG. Based on the PSG findings, stage N2 sleep was found to be prolonged, stage N3 and REM sleep were shortened in patients with CS. Average heart rate and mean Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) score were higher in patients with CS than the control subjects. Sixteen (47.1%) patients with CS and 4 (17.4%) controls had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; AHI >= 5). There were no significant differences in sleep parameters of patients according to the etiology of CS (adrenal vs. pituitary) patients. Following 12-months of treatment, a significant decrease in stage N2 sleep and a significant increase in stage N3 sleep were detected, but there was no change in terms of AHI. In conclusion, Cushing syndrome has disturbing effects on sleep structure and these effects are at least partially reversible after treatment. However, the increased risk of OSA was not reversed a year after treatment indicating the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of CS.