Long Range Effect of Mutations on Specific Conformational Changes in the Extracellular Loop 2 of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor


Unal H., JAGANNATHAN R., BHATNAGAR A., TIRUPULA K., DESNOYER R., KARNIK S. S.

JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, cilt.288, ss.540-551, 2013 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 288 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2013
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1074/jbc.m112.392514
  • Dergi Adı: JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.540-551

Özet

The topology of the second extracellular loop (ECL2) and its interaction with ligands is unique in each G protein-coupled receptor. When the orthosteric ligand pocket located in the transmembrane (TM) domain is occupied, ligand-specific conformational changes occur in the ECL2. In more than 90% of G protein-coupled receptors, ECL2 is tethered to the third TM helix via a disulfide bond. Therefore, understanding the extent to which the TM domain and ECL2 conformations are coupled is useful. To investigate this, we examined conformational changes in ECL2 of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) by introducing mutations in distant sites that alter the activation state equilibrium of the AT1R. Differential accessibility of reporter cysteines introduced at four conformation-sensitive sites in ECL2 of these mutants was measured. Binding of the agonist angiotensin II (AngII) and inverse agonist losartan in wild-type AT1R changed the accessibility of reporter cysteines, and the pattern was consistent with ligand-specific "lid" conformations of ECL2. Without agonist stimulation, the ECL2 in the gain of function mutant N111G assumed a lid conformation similar to AngII-bound wild-type AT1R. In the presence of inverse agonists, the conformation of ECL2 in the N111G mutant was similar to the inactive state of wild-type AT1R. In contrast, AngII did not induce a lid conformation in ECL2 in the loss of function D281A mutant, which is consistent with the reduced AngII binding affinity in this mutant. However, a lid conformation was induced by [Sar(1), Gln(2), Ile(8)] AngII, a specific analog that binds to the D281A mutant with better affinity than AngII. These results provide evidence for the emerging paradigm of domain coupling facilitated by long range interactions at distant sites on the same receptor.