In the present study, changes in erythrocyte rheology in association with mercury toxicity and the role of propolis were analyzed in rats. Forty male Wistar Albino rats that were 4-5 months old were used in the study. The control group was administered normal saline intraperitoneal (ip) injections; the mercury chloride group was administered HgCl2 (4 mg/kg, ip); the propolis group was administered propolis (200 mg/kg, by gavage); and the HgCl2+ propolis group was administered HgCl2 (4 mg/kg, ip)+ propolis (200 mg/kg, by gavage) for 3 days. The following parameters were analyzed: hematological parameters, plasma potassium (K) levels, methemoglobin, 2,3-DPG, erythrocyte deformability, and hemolysis as a percentage. The results revealed that leukocyte count significantly increased, and a significant decline occurred in the platelet count (p<0.01). Serum K+, MetHb, 2, 3-DPG, and hemolysis percentage significantly increased in the rats exposed to mercury (p<0.01). However, the values of rats administered only with propolis were close to the values of the control group and the changes were avoided by the administration of propolis as protection in the rats exposed to mercury chloride.