Medya Okuryazarlığı ve Eğitimi


Creative Commons License

BİLİCİ I. E.

Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, Ankara, 2014

  • Basım Tarihi: 2014
  • Yayın Evi: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık
  • Basıldığı Şehir: Ankara

Özet

Okuryazarlığın ülkelerin gelişmişlik düzeyinin bir göstergesi olmaktan çıktığı 21. yüzyılda, geleceğimizin teminatı gençlerin informal öğrenmelerinde medya başat role sahiptir. Medyanın kendisine ve yaşadığımız dünyaya dair bize öğrettiklerini tersten de okuyabilme becerisi, bilgi toplumunun en kritik donanımlarından biridir. Medya okuryazarlığı eğitimi ile 7'den 70'e, 7/24 günlük hayatımıza eşlik eden medyanın dilinin doğru anlayıp doğru okumak için sağlam bir temel atılacaktır.

Ekran bağımlılığından madde bağımlılığına kadar çeşitli bağımlılıklar, şiddet, cinselliğin kötüye kullanılması, duyarsızlaşma gibi sorunlar ve doğrudukları sonuçlar, çözüm arayışında doğal olarak medya okuryazarlığı eğitimini karşımıza çıkarmaktadır. Bu yüzden medya okuryazarlığı tüm dünyada, özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde son otuz yıldır temel ders olarak önem görmekte, yaygınlaşmaktadır.

Mesleki olarak medya pratiklerinin öğretildiği iletişim fakültelerinde de, medyayı okuma becerisi ön plana çıkmıştır. İletişim öğrencileri için medya okuryazarlığı artık en çok tercih edilen derslerden biri olmuştur.

Eğitimin Neyi öğreteceğiz? Nasıl öğreteceğiz? Temel sorularına yanıt veren bu kitap; iletişim öğrencileri, öğretmen adayları ve öğretmenlerin medya okuryazarlığını tanımından-uygulamasına öğrenebilmesi için bir kaynak niteliğindedir.

 

****************************************

Ibrahim E. Bilici kitle iletişim araçları, popüler kültür ve dijital medyanın sunduğu fırsatları ve sorunları açıklayarak; tüm gücü, zenginliği ve karmaşıklığına rağmen, medya okuryazarlığı eğitimini açık seçik ve anlaşılır bir şekilde ele almaktadır. Bu kitap, sınıf ile çağdaş yaşam arasındaki bağlantıyı kurabilme, eleştirel düşünme becerisi kazandırarak öğrenicileri başarılı bir şekilde 21. yüzyıla hazırlama konularında eğitimcilere yararlı olacaktır. Prof. Dr. Renee Hobbs.

(Hobbs, Harvard Institute on Media Education adlı ilk eğitmenlerin eğitimi programının ve Media Education Lab adlı medya okuryazarlığı laboratuvarlarının kurucusu; Rhode Island Üniversitesi (ABD) Harrington İletişim Fakültesi kurucu dekanıdır.)

MEDIA LITERACY EDUCATION

The objective of the book is to provide media literacy knowledge primarily for media literacy teachers' rather than scholars and students from educational and communication fields.

It is important to stress here that throughout this book one of the main aims of the author is to provide specific guidance as well providing a source of reference to other scholarly works in this field

Keywords: Media Literacy ? Media Education ? Media Literacy Education ? Media and Information Literacy

 

The text is divided into eight chapters:

The 1st. Chapter is essentially asking major questions namely: What is media literacy? What does it means to be literate in the information age? How can media literacy be initiated in schools? Questions arising from these origins are answered by an analytical study of the definition of media literacy. Thus Media, media education and media literacy terms are clarified, identified and compared. Furthermore core concepts of media literacy are introduced.

Content of the 1st. Chapter (MEDIA LITERACY: TERMINOLOGY, FIELDS OF IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION): Media ? Media Forms ? Printed Media ? Newspaper and Magazine ? Electronic Media ? Television ? Radio ? Digital-Multimedia: Computer, Internet and Mobil Technologies ? User-Generated Content ? Media Content ? Text ? Sound ? Photograph-Video-Graphic ? Media Education and Media Literacy ? Media Education ? Media 'Literacy' Reading the Media ? Writing the Media


In the 2nd. Chapter, the various approaches that are discussed are mainly concerned with Inoculative, Protectionist, Analytical, Empowerment paradigms/approaches and these important areas are examined in detail. Thus the Benefits, strengths and limits of these approaches are focused on in depth. The works of theoreticians such as Marshall McLuhan, George Gerbner, Albert Bandura and Benjamin Bloom are always referred to as being the best authoritative sources in media literacy and they are thought of as being the main providers for the foundation of media literacy as well as giving the most reliable direction in this field. These theoreticians gained prominence through their ground breaking approaches and enlightening insight into media literacy. The knowledge generated by these theoreticians has proven to be invaluable for Communication and education scholars who are entering into media literacy and this is particularly so in Turkey.

Content of the 2nd. Chapter (THEORETICAL ROOTS OF MEDIA LITERACY EDUCATION: PARADIGMS AND PERSPECTIVES): Theoretical Views: Inoculative ? Protectionist ? Analytical ? Empowerment ? Critical ? Analytical ? Media Literacy and Bloom, Bandura, Gerbner and McLuhan’s Approaches ? Benjamin Bloom ? Albert Bandura ? George Gerbner ? Herbert Marshall McLuhan


The 3rd. Chapter, turns our attention to some of the leading media literacy innovative countries that have generated knowledge for their classrooms as well as for their academies of media literacy. Their experiences are examined at their country’s national level. Main governmental organizations and private non-governmental organizations formed as association or foundations are also examined. The historical development, advances, successes, failures and obstacles encountered by these countries and their various media literacy organizations have been gathered together under this one chapter and it provides an invaluable insight into the lessons that can be learnt in media literacy from such sources.

In the round therefore, the fundamental objective of the first three chapters is to look at the components of media literacy from a holistic perspective to enable the reader to see and comprehend in greater clarity the bigger ’picture’ of media literacy.

Content of the 3rd. Chapter (MEDIA LITERACY EXPERIENCES OF MAJOR COUNTRIES): United States of America ? England ? Australia ? Canada ? Ireland ? France ? Germany ? Spain ? Greece ? Israel ? Media Literacy Courses at Developing Countries ? South Africa ? Latin American Countries ? Russia ? Finland ? Development Process of Media Literacy in Turkey ? An over all evaluation of Media Literacy Courses


In the 4th. Chapter, Primary concepts of media literacy courses in the classroom are examined. In this chapter, major questions of media literacy are answered: Which concept (topics) are focused on in ML courses? How to teach about X concept? How to handle X topic? Etc. Basic terms and abbreviations are defined in the introduction of this book specifically to support this chapter. In order to help students to become critical citizens, we need to develop critical thinking skills with media literacy. Its a kind of advocation or provocation for educators to see the need for integrating critical skills into the curriculum. In this chapter, you will find the definition and theoretical discussion of main concepts and the analytical application of these media literacy concept.

Content of the 4th. Chapter (MAIN CONCEPTS/TOPICS OF MEDIA LITERACY COURSES): Types of Media Messages ? News ? Advertisement ? Video ? Film/Serial ? Documentary ? Education ? Health ? Entertainment ? Sport ? Digital and Online Content ? Main Terms/Concepts of Media Literacy ? Message ? Presentation and Re-presentation ? Culture ? Language ? Ethics and (Social) Responsibility ? Institution and Author ? Citizenship ? Credibility ? Meaning and Understanding


In the 5th. Chapter, teaching methods for media literacy are explained. The chapter is specifically designed to enable one to specialize in answering the question How to teach? Educational processes and activities in class and after school activities are detailed. General methods and how to's are explained but selecting samples and curricular alignment is left to teachers' and it is explained that they can choose according to their class's progress level and needs.

Content of the 5th Chapter (INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS IN MEDIA LITERACY): Viewing, Reading, Evaluating and Discussion ? Asking Question ? Analyzing ? Searching ? Values Clarification ? Role-Playing and Simulation ? Game vs. Playing Outdoors ? Production and Online Applications ? Informal Education and After School Programs ? Comparing ? Collaboration ? Problems

 

In the 6th. and 7th. Chapters problematic issues in the media are scrutinized. These problems are divided into two distinct categories: In Chapter 6, the problems which can cause bias in the media before broadcasting or publishing are discussed. Then in Chapter 7 the problems which can similarly cause bias publicly after broadcasting or publishing has taken place are dealt with (both in the background of a screen – as well as in the foreground of a screen)


More specifically in the 6th. Chapter, the problems of bias that influence the quality of information are examined: What is the source of information? What kind of factors effect the quality of information? How does one detect a source’s credibility? These questions are dealt with and answered in depth. Further topics under discussion and evaluated in this Chapter include: How to evaluate credibility of information, how the media covers events, places, issues, objectivity, impartiality and general background issues are examined.

Content of the 6th. Chapter (ISSUES/PROBLEMS INFLUENCING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION): Media Coverage: Agenda Setting and Framing ? Parties and Debate ? Representation of Reality ? Bias ? Source of Information: Who to Trust? ? Ownership Interests and Perspectives ? Power of Media and Hegemony ? Evidence and Persuasion ? Purpose and Background ? Technology and Learning ? Global Understanding ? Misinformation and Manipulation


Turning again to the 7th. Chapter, potential bias problems within the media’s content that may influence behavior are evaluated. How to detect the misdirecting of information as misinformation and propaganda are looked at and identified. The further issue of how to decode bad information with critical thinking is then scrutinized.

Content of the 7th. Chapter (ISSUES/PROBLEMS INFLUENCE ON BEHAVIOR): Stereotyping ? Bad Language ? Sexuality and Gender ? Media Impact on Lifestyles and Values ? Reality: Fact and Fiction ? Subjectivity, and Objectivity ? Violence and Racism ? Nutrition and Consumer Behaviour ? Beauty and Body Images ? Celebrity and Role Models ? Addictions and Time Management ? Media Exposure and Academic Performance ? Media and Family – Social Networks and Friendship ? Empowered Parents


In the 8th. Chapter, collective efforts and collaboration in media literacy are explained. In particular the crucial question of how to be successful in nurturing media literate individuals is answered.

Chapter 8 is thus focused on how to colligate: administrative, educational, and parental collaboration and co-operation. Also how learning has become a totally collaborative venture amongst students and their teachers, parents, peers and the educational system. Thus each group, it is argued within the book, should effectively be a major and eager stakeholder participating in media literacy and carrying out their mission efficiently for successful media literacy education.

Content of the 8th. Chapter (PROPOSALS OF COOPERATION FOR MEDIA LITERACY EDUCATION EDUCATION): Proposals for Implementation: Major Actors of Media Literacy Education: ? Teachers ? Students ? Parents ? Academic Research


* * *

There are some question boxes for some of the titles. These should be used to draw attention to or encourage readers to think more deeply about some of the issues and details contained within the text. They have been designed to direct the reader to intertextuality.

This book is particularly targeted on assisting secondary school teachers. However communication and education school students would also benefit greatly from reading this book. So, the target groups for this book are in the main: teachers, graduate students, academicians, curriculum developers, advocates and other collaterally involved people. The book can be used in a pedagogical arena.

Ultimately, the main objective of this book is to construct a media literacy learning environment for students', the guarantors of our future.