Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypertension and obesity on endometrial thickness. Study design: Forty obese women with hypertension (Group 1), 28 non-obese women with hypertension (Group 2), 58 obese women (Group 3), 56 nonobese healthy women (Group 4), totally 182 postmenopausal women were included in this prospective study. All patients were examined, and Papanicolaou cervical smear was performed after interview. Endometrial thickness was measured in the anterior-posterior diameter by vaginal ultrasonography. The data were analysed with one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA), Scheffe and 2 tests. P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: Endometrial thickness in obese women with or without hypertension were significantly greater than in non-obese women with or without hypertension (P < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between nonobese hypertensive women and control group regarding endometrial thickness measurement (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Obesity has been found to increase endometrial thickness independently. Hypertension may increase the endometrial thickness if it is combined with obesity. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.