Is there deterministic, stochastic, and/or club convergence in ecological footprint indicator among G20 countries?


BİLGİLİ F. , ULUCAK R.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, cilt.25, ss.35404-35419, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 25 Konu: 35
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s11356-018-3457-1
  • Dergi Adı: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.35404-35419

Özet

Ecological footprint has been widely accepted as an indicator of environmental performance in recent years since it considers carbon dioxide emissions, the collapse of fisheries, the change in land use, and deforestation. This paper investigates, if exists, the convergence in per capita ecological footprint among G20 countries by employing the annual data for the period 1961 to 2014. A bootstrap-based panel KPSS test with structural breaks and club convergence test are carried out. Eventually, this paper is expected to contribute to the literature of natural resources and ecology/environment by (1) monitoring the panel variable of ecological footprint, (2) launching stochastic and deterministic convergence analyses, and (3) estimating the club convergence parameters. In conclusion, the confirmative results in favor of environmental convergence are obtained by exhibiting the stochastic and deterministic convergences and deriving the output of merging clubs.