Long-term neuroendocrine consequences of traumatic brain injury and strategies for management

HACIOĞLU A. , Kelestimur F., Tanriverdi F.

EXPERT REVIEW OF ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, cilt.15, ss.123-139, 2020 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 15 Konu: 2
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1080/17446651.2020.1733411
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.123-139


Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported to cause neuroendocrine impairment with a prevalence of 15% with confirmatory testing. Pituitary dysfunction (PD) may have detrimental effects on vital parameters as well as on body composition, cardiovascular functions, cognition, and quality of life. Therefore, much effort has been made to identify predictive factors for post-TBI PD and various screening strategies have been offered. Areas covered: We searched PubMed and reviewed the recent data on clinical perspectives and long-term outcomes as well as predictive factors and screening modalities of post-TBI PD. Inconsistencies in the literature are overviewed and new areas of research are discussed. Expert opinion: Studies investigating biomarkers that will accurately predict TBI patients with a high risk of PD are generally pilot studies with a small number of participants. Anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamic antibodies, neural proteins, micro-RNAs are promising in this field. As severity of TBI has been the most commonly associated risk factor for post-TBI PD, we suggest prospective screening based on severity of head trauma until new evidence emerges. There is also a need for more studies investigating the clinical effects of hormone replacement in TBI patients with PD.