In the preparation of nanoparticles (NPs) by the nanoprecipitation method, emulsifiers play a key role for NPs' characteristics. The present study aimed to investigate the combined emulsifier effect on ibuprofen loaded poly( lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs' characteristics and anticancer activity. Ibuprofen loaded PLGA NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation using different concentrations of PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) or PVA TPGS (d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) combination as emulsifier. It was found that encapsulation efficiencies of NPs varied between 17.9 and 41.9 % and the highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained with 0.5% PVA + 0.1% TPGS (coded as PLGA PVA/TPGS NPs). PLGA PVA/TPGS NPs were characterized and compared with PLGA PVA NPs, which was obtained by 0.5% PVA alone. Polydispersity index of PLGA PVA/TPGS and PLGA PVA NPs were found to be 0.08 and 0.15, respectively. Incorporation of TPGS with PVA slightly decreased the initial ibuprofen release. Transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrated a nearly uniform particle size distribution and spherical particle shape of the PLGA PVA/TPGS NPs. Additionally, PLGA PVA/TPGS NPs were significantly more cytotoxic than PLGA PVA NPs on the MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma cells) and Caco-2 (human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) cells (p<0.05). Also PLGA PVA/TPGS NPs were not cytotoxic on normal cells (L929, mouse healthy fibroblast cells) (p>0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that using a combination of TPGS and PVA as an emulsifier in nanoprecipitation could be a promising approach for preparing ibuprofen loaded PLGA NPs because of their improved characteristics and anticancer activity.