Effects of Smoking on Nutrition and Food Consumption

YILMAZ M. , Aykut M.

TURKIYE KLINIKLERI TIP BILIMLERI DERGISI, vol.32, no.3, pp.644-651, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.5336/medsci.2011-24391
  • Page Numbers: pp.644-651


Objective: This study was conducted to determine the effects of smoking on food consumption, nutritional habits and some anthropometric measurements. Material and Methods: A total of 1505 individuals who worked for the public sector and private sector were interviewed in order to reach the predetermined sample size and their smoking habits, educational levels, age and gender were recorded. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotin Dependence (FTND) was given to the ones who smoked currently. Two hundred and ten nicotine addicts based on the dependence score constituted the "Smoker group" and 210 age-, gender- and educational level-matched nonsmokers made up the "Non-smoker group". A daily dietary consumption of individuals was recorded and anthropometric measurements were made. Results: There was a significantly higher number of smokers who skipped breakfast and who had eating habit before going to bed compared to non-smokers (p<0.05). While non-smokers were more likely to consume fruits, smokers tended to consume biscuits, chocolate and cookies between meals (p<0.05). Fast eating was more common among smokers compared to non-smokers (p<0.001). While sugar, tea and coffee consumption of smoker women was higher compared to non-smokers, fruit consumption was found to be lower (p<0.05). A higher number of smoker women had inadequate amounts of vitamin C intake compared to non-smokers (p<0.05). Body muscle, bone weight and basal metabolism rate (BMR) of non-smoker men and body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage of non-smoker women were higher than in smokers (p<0.05). Non-smoker men exercised more than smokers did (p<0.01). Conclusion: Some unhealthy nutritional habits were more common among smokers compared to non-smokers and recommendations were made about the negative effects of smoking on nutrition.