Occurrence and molecular identification of zoonotic microsporidia in pet budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Turkey.

Pekmezci D., Yetismis G. , Esin C., Duzlu Ö. , Colak Z., Inci A. , ...More

Medical mycology, vol.59, pp.585-591, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 59
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1093/mmy/myaa088
  • Title of Journal : Medical mycology
  • Page Numbers: pp.585-591
  • Keywords: budgerigar, Encephalitozoon hellem, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, genotyping, zoonosis, ENTEROCYTOZOON-BIENEUSI, ENCEPHALITOZOON-HELLEM, GENETICS ANALYSIS, EXOTIC BIRDS, DAIRY-CATTLE, PREVALENCE, PIGEONS, STOOL, SPP.


Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are well-knownmicrosporidian pathogens, recently classified as fungi, infecting humans and reptiles, mammals, and birds. Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulates) are the most preferred captive pet birds in the households. Prevalence and molecular data on microsporidian species in budgerigars are scarce worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and genotypes of Encephalitozoon spp. and E. bieneusi in budgerigars, and to reveal their zoonotic potential. A total of 143 fecal samples were collected from owned healthy budgerigars in Turkey. Encephalitozoon spp. and E. bieneusi were examined by nested PCR targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and sequenced for identifying Encephalitozoon spp. and E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence of E. hellem and E. bieneusi was 14.7% ( 21/143) and 3.5% (5/143), respectively. Two genotypes of E. hellem were identified, including one known 1A (n = 18) and a novel TURK1B (n = 3). In addition, we determined two E. bieneusi genotypes, including one known N (n = 2) and a novel TURKM1 (n = 3). E. hellem 1A and novel TURK1B clustered as a sister taxon, and genotype N and novel TURKM1 genotypes fall into group 2 of E. bieneusi in the phylogenetic tree. Novel genotypes of E. hellem and E. bieneusi were described for the first time in the avian host. Moreover, E. bieneusi genotype N was first detected in avian hosts in the present study. This study contributes to the current knowledge on the molecular epidemiology and transmission dynamics of E. hellem and E. bieneusi.