Susceptibilities of Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens Responsible for Complicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections to Standard Bacteriophage Cocktails

Gündoğdu A. , Kılıç H. , Kilic A. , Kutateladze M.

MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, cilt.50, ss.215-223, 2016 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 50
  • Basım Tarihi: 2016
  • Doi Numarası: 10.5578/mb.24165
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.215-223


Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) may represent a wide clinical spectrum from cellulitis to high mortality associated necrotizing fasciitis. Limitations in therapy due to the multiple drug resistance, leads to increase in the morbidity and mortality rates, especially in complicated SSTIs such as diabetic foot, decubitus, and surgical wound infections. Therefore, alternative treatment strategies other than antibiotics are needed in appropriate clinical conditions. "Bacteriophage therapy", which is an old method and has been used as part of standard treatment in some countries such as Georgia and Russia, has again become popular worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibilities of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens isolated from patients with complicated SSTIs, against standard bacteriophage (phage) cocktails. Six different ready-made phage preparations [Pyophage, Intestiphage, ENKO, SES, Fersisi and Staphylococcal Bacteriophage (Sb)] used in this study have been provided by G. Eliava Institute, Georgia. Because of the absence of ready-made phage preparations for Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, Phi 1-Phi 7 and Phi KL1-Phi KL3 phages were used provided from the same institute's phage library, respectively. Isolation and identification of the pathogens from abscess and wound samples of patients with SSTIs were performed by conventional methods and automatized VITEK (R)-2 (bioMerieux, ABD) system. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted complying CLSI standards' and the bacteria that were resistant to at least two different antibiotic groups were considered as MDR. Accordingly, a total of 33 isolates, nine of them were E.coli (8 ESBL and 1 ESBL + carbapenemase positive); nine were MDR P.aeruginosa; nine were MDR A.baumannii; three were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and three were K.pneumoniae (1 ESBL, 1 carbapenemase and 1 ESBL + carbapenemase positive) were included in the study. The phage susceptibilities of the pathogens were performed by using spot test. In the study, 29 (87.9%) out of 33 MDR pathogens were found to be susceptible to at least one of the tested phage/phage preparations. All MRSA (3/3) strains were susceptible to ENKO, SES, Fersisi and Sb phage cocktails, while all A.baumannii isolates (9/9) were susceptible to Phi 5 and Phi 7 phages. However, two E.coli, one K. pneumoniae and one P.aeruginosa strains were resistant to the all phage preparations tested. Although the clinical use of phages has not been approved yet, except a few Eastern European countries, this study exhibits the potential use of the topical bacteriophage therapy in the treatment of complicated SSTIs caused by MDR pathogens with limited treatment options, such as diabetic foot, decubitus, and surgical wound infections.