The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends epidemiological studies for planning dental services to collect information about oral disease, oral health, and treatment needs of population. The periodontal and dental examinations were made on 4534 children (2018 males and 2516 females) by using CPI and DMFT indices. Information concerning with parent's demographic status was obtained through a survey questionnaires. According to CPI scores; 5.1% of males and 8.9% of females had healthy periodontium. Of the entire group; 70.0% of males and 67.8% of females had bleeding on probing (score 1) and the highest percentages were obtained for 8-year-old males (88.2%) and 7-year-old females (90.8%), respectively. Mean DMFT scores were 2.66 +/- 3.0 for males and 2.30 +/- 2.8 for females, respectively. For the entire group; the most affected CPI sextants were lower anterior for both gender (males 19.4%, females 17.8%). Multiple binary logistic regression analysis showed that the parents educational level, frequency of tooth brushing, anxiety, preventive dental visits and sleep duration were significant risk indicators for periodontal disease. This study clearly indicated that effective oral health prevention strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school-children in Turkey.