Short bowel syndrome occurs as a result of insufficiency in the total length of the small intestine to provide adequate supply of nutrients. Seventy-five percent of cases are due to massive intestinal resection. A 35-year-old male complaining of abdominal pain was admitted to the gastroenterology department. A CT scan was performed, showing total occlusion of the portal vein and superior mesenteric vein. During the operation, widespread edema and necrosis of the small intestine were found. The necrotic segments of the small intestine were resected. The spleen was larger than normal and, in some parts, infarcts were evident, thus asplenectomy was also performed during surgery. A second-look procedure was performed 24 hours later, and an additional 10 cm jejunal resection and anastomosis was performed. His further evaluations revealed myeloproliferative disease and chronic active hepatitis B leading to thrombosis. Essential thrombocytosis and portal vein thrombosis are common in hepatitis B infection. Patients with complaints of abdominal pain in the context of essential thrombocytosis and hepatitis B should be handled with caution as they are at risk of developing portal vein thrombosis.