HIKMET [WISDOM] IN EARLY ISLAMIC THOUGHT


ÖZGEN M. K.

BILIMNAME, cilt.41, ss.835-862, 2020 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 41 Konu: 1
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.28949/bilimname.708037
  • Dergi Adı: BILIMNAME
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.835-862

Özet

In this paper, the understanding of wisdom and virtue in the context of moral philosophy in classical Turkish thought will be described. In Plato and Aristotle who are the first great system philosophers in the history of philosophy, moral philosophy is embellished with a sense of virtue. Accordingly, the essence of man is based on the mind and morality is realized by controlling the other abilities of the soul such as desires and passions under the guidance of the mind. Because whether virtues are conceived as holistic truths like in Plato, or as values having social origins, such as Aristotle, they represent a kind of relationship to reason. As in the case of Khoja Ahmad Yasawi, he has placed the wisdom-based understanding of morality at the center of his philosophy to overcome virtuecentered values. We call it transcendent, because the understanding of virtue is not entirely wrong, but incomplete; this means focusing on the shell to miss the essence. So the distinction here is about the vital difference between philosophy and wisdom, between question of how and why. In this study, the differences between a wisdom-centered morality and a world of virtue-centered moral values and their reflections to today will be discussed. Consolation / satisfaction / happiness / consent in wisdom morality are the highest aims. However, in the morality of virtue, the happiness of self / ego has priority. Priority of self is only by purifying the self; this is a requirement of wisdom morality. In virtue ethics, there is self-control but controlling ego is ultimately a behavior for the ego. Wisdom means understanding, truth and compassion for the minds. Wisdom reveals the metaphysical and spiritual dimensions of our faith and morality. It leads us to the truth so that we can live in integrity and honesty. Wisdom gives meaning and purpose to what we do, and today we need to rediscover this understanding of wisdom.