We describe the application of temperature-controlled ionic liquid based microextraction (TC-IL-ME) of lead(II) ion. The method does not require the use of an organic solvent or a ligand. Rather, the IL is directly added to the aqueous sample containing Pb(II) in a centrifuge tube, and the mixture is heated to 80 A degrees C for 4 min. After cooling at 0 A degrees C, the solution turns cludy due to the formation of fine droplets of the IL containing Pb(II). The IL is separated by centrifugation, acidified, and directly submitted to FAAS by microinjection. The effects of pH value, volume of IL, extraction time, temperature, sample volume and matrix were optimized to result in a preconcentration factor of 30, a detection limit of 5.8 mu g L-1, and a limit of quantification of 19.3 mu g L-1. The method was validated by analyzing a certified reference material (NCSZC81002B; hair). A recovery test performed with spiked samples gave values between 102 % and 105 %. The method was also used to determine Pb(II) in hair samples.