This study was initiated to investigate the economical impact of vaccination against tropical theileriosis in cattle in Cappadocia in Turkey. A total of 554 vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals were monitored for Theileria annulata infection using microscopic examination serology by measuring the antibody response of the animals by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The prevalence of T annulata infection, morbidity and mortality were significantly higher in unvaccinated than in vaccinated cattle, whereas the seropositivity was significantly lower in the unvaccinated group. Acute tropical theileriosis cases were diagnosed in 156 of 554 (27.61%) cattle, and 86 of 156 (56.21%) died from the disease. The total economic losses because of tropical theileriosis were estimated at US$598,133 for 2 years.