This study was carried out to investigate the potential vectors and relative mosquito infection rates of Dirofilaria immitis throughout two mosquito seasons (2008-2009) in Kayseri province where is located in Central Anatolian part of Turkey. For this aim, totally 1198 genomic DNA pools, extracted and grouped according to the species and collection site (1-17 specimens/pool) from 6153 mosquito specimens, were examined by PCR using species-specific primers for D. immitis. The captured mosquitoes from 46 focuses were survived under in vitro conditions for 7 days to allow the development of larval stages of D. immitis. DNA extraction was performed individually to both thorax-head and abdomens in order to determine infective and infected mosquito specimens, respectively. The most abundant mosquito species in the study area was determined as Ae. vexans (51.7%) and this was followed by Cx. pipiens (42.1%), Cx. theileri (3.1%), Cs. annulata (1.5%), An. maculipennis (1.0%) and Cx. hortensis (0.6%). The PCR results indicated that 9/312 and 12/312 pools from Ae. vexans abdomens and thorax-heads were positive for filarial DNAs, respectively where as 3/241 pools of each abdomens and thorax-heads from Cx. pipiens were positive for D. immitis DNAs. The minimum infection rates (MIRs) for Ae. vexans and Cx. pipiens were calculated as 0.41 and 0.12, respectively. Although D. immitis DNA's were found in both pools from Ae. vexans and Cx. pipiens, the calculated MIRs provide evidence that Ae. vexans could be the main potential vector of D. immitis in Kayseri. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.