Aptamer-functionalized magnetic graphene oxide conjugates loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) dye, or Apt@ICG@mGO, have been successfully developed for dual-targeted photothermal and photodynamic therapy. In general, a drug or its carrier or their dosage can be important issues in terms of toxicity. However, in this system, each component used is quite safe, biocompatible and clean. For instance, ICG, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved near-infrared (NIR) dye, serves as both a photothermal and photodynamic agent. It is immobilized on the surface of mGO via a physical interaction called "pi-pi stacking". The mGO, as a most biocompatible member of the carbo family, is selected for use as a platform for aptamer and ICG dye conjugation, as well as a photothermal agent. The light in the near-infrared region (NIR) was chosen as a harmless light source for activating the agents for photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). The magnetic properties of mGO are also used for separation of Apt@ICG@mGO conjugates from the reaction medium. Aptamer sgc8 acts as a targeting ligand to selectively and specifically bind to a protein on the membrane of cancer cell line CCRF-CEM. After the aptamer-functionalized ICG@mGO conjugates are incubated with target CEM cells at 37 degrees C for 2 hours, they are bound to cells or they may be internalized into the cell via endocytosis. More significantly, we demonstrated that the Apt@ICG@mGO conjugates produce heat for photothermal therapy (PTT) and singlet oxygen for photodynamic therapy (PDT) upon NIR laser irradiation at 808 nm. Thus, remarkably efficient cancer cell destructions with similar to 41% and similar to 60% and similar to 82% cell killing using 10, 50 and 100 ppm Apt@ICG@mGO, respectively are achieved in 5 min light exposure.