Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 3 luting agents (glass ionomer cement, compomer, and polycarboxylate cement) on white spot lesion formation in patients with full-coverage bonded acrylic splint expanders. White spot lesion formation was assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence. Methods: Full-coverage rapid maxillary expanders were cemented with glass ionomer cement, compomer, and polycarboxylate cement in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A control group comprised patients who never had orthodontic treatment. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence images taken before and after rapid maxillary expansion treatment were analyzed for these parameters: the percentages of fluorescence loss with respect to the fluorescence of sound tooth tissue (Delta F) and maximum loss of fluorescence intensity in the whole lesion; lesion area with DF equal to less than a -5% threshold; and the percentage of fluorescence loss with respect to the fluorescence of sound tissue times the area that indicated lesion volume. Results: All 3 groups showed statistically significantly greater demineralization than the control group. The 3 experimental groups differed from each other in half of the parameters calculated. Teeth in the polycarboxylate group developed the most white spot lesions. Conclusions: With the highest rate of white spot lesion formation, polycarboxylate cements should not be used for full-coverage bonded acrylic splint expanders. Compomers may be preferred over glass ionomer cements, based on the findings of this study.