A reinvestigation of EKC model by ecological footprint measurement for high, middle and low income countries


Ulucak R. , Bilgili F.

JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, vol.188, pp.144-157, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 188
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.191
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION
  • Page Numbers: pp.144-157
  • Keywords: EKC hypothesis, Economic growth, Environmental degradation, Ecological footprint, ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE, PANEL-DATA ANALYSIS, CROSS-SECTIONAL DEPENDENCE, BIOMASS ENERGY-CONSUMPTION, WAVELET COHERENCE APPROACH, CARBON-DIOXIDE EMISSIONS, CO2 EMISSIONS, ECONOMIC-GROWTH, COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS, HETEROGENEOUS PANELS

Abstract

This study reinvestigates empirically the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth. The available EKC literature, in general, employs CO2 emissions as a proxy for environmental degradation. Unlike the current studies, this study employs the Ecological Footprint (EF hereafter) variable, instead of CO2 emissions, as an indicator of environmental deterioration. Then, this research observes the countries which are classified into three income groups in order to investigate EKC hypothesis. In conclusion, following the second generation panel data techniques, this paper reaches its best fitted model among the models of continuously updated fully modified (CUP-FM) and continuously updated bias corrected (CUP-BC) models, and, reveals that EKC hypothesis is confirmed by low income, middle income and high income group countries' data. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.