Objectives There is not yet a standardized approach to treat patients with small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SmCCB). This study aims to investigate the clinical features, treatment, and survival outcomes of patients with pure SmCCB. Materials and methods Patients diagnosed with SmCCB between January 2006 and September 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of 34 patients with a median age of 63.0 years were included in the study, with a male to female ratio of 4.6:1.0. At the time of diagnosis, 22 patients (64.7%) had stage IV disease. At a median follow-up time of 12.7 months, 67.6% of patients died of bladder carcinoma, with an overall survival (OS) of 15.7 months for all patients. In the patients with stages I-III, nodal involvement, and distant metastases, the median OS was 31.8, 15.7, and 8.4 months, respectively (P = 0.005). Considering the survival rates of the patients (stages I-III) treated with surgery vs. local therapy, there was not a statistically significant difference (26.6 months and 31.8 months, P = 0.97, respectively). A multivariate analysis revealed that stage IV disease and poor ECOG performance status were associated with OS. Conclusion The optimal treatment of SmCCB has been under debate. For the patients with advanced stage of disease (T4b, N+, M+), platinum containing chemotherapeutic agents should be preferred. Stage IV disease and poor ECOG performance status were associated with shorter OS.