Aim. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can be defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver and/or blood in the absence of detectable serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag). There is a high prevalence of occult HBV infection in dialysis patients. This study investigated the prevalence of occult HBV infection in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients and compared the prevalence of occult HBV infection in dialysis patients either with or without hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 71 CAPD patients and 71 HD patients were evaluated. HBV DNA testing was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We recorded general characteristics of the patients, duration of dialysis, HBs Ag, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), anti-HCV antibody (anti-HCV), HCV RNA, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase levels (AST). Results. Twelve (16.9%) of the 71 HD patients and seven (9.8%) of the 71 CAPD patients were HBV DNA-positive. A statistically significant difference was not observed in the groups. Anti-HCV was negative and AST and ALT levels were normal in all of the HBV-DNA positive patients. Viral loads were low in both groups. Conclusion. This is the first study that analyzes occult HBV prevalence in CAPD patients. We conclude that the prevalence of the occult HBV may be common in CAPD patients as in HD patients, and HCV positivity is not a contributing factor to occult HBV infection in dialysis patients.