With the availability of irrigation water, supplemental irrigation in winter-grown crops, such as lentil, wheat, and barley, has been intensely practiced to prevent crop yield losses due to the incidence of intermittent drought stress. In the crop growing seasons of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009, a study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental irrigations on Canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Elvis F1) under the semiarid climatic conditions of the Harran plain, Sanliurfa, Turkey. A sprinkler irrigation system was used to irrigate the study plots. The irrigation treatments included 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 (full irrigation) of Class-A pan evaporation amounts. The full irrigation treatment during both years consisted of 250 and 225 mm, respectively. In turn, crop water use values during the same years and treatments were 462 and 449 mm. In general, plant height and 1000 seed weight ranged from 140 to 165 cm and from 2.5 to 3.3g, respectively, and these variables significantly differed among irrigation treatments (p < 0.05). Crop yield and above ground biomass measurements were affected by irrigation treatments and varied from 1094 to 3943 kg ha(-1) and from 6746 to 18,311 kg ha(-1), respectively (p < 0.05). Similarly, harvest index values were affected (p < 0.05) and ranged from 0.16 to 0.23 on average. The water use efficiency obtained in the different treatments indicated a strong positive relationship between crop yield and irrigation. Overall, our results indicate that supplemental irrigation substantially increased canola yield; however, for an optimum yield, full irrigation is suggested. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.