Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of mandibular first and second molars in a Turkish population by using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Study design: CBCT images of mandibular first (n = 823) and second molar (n = 925) teeth from 605 Turkish patients were analyzed. The root canal configurations were classified according to the method of Vertucci. Results: The majority of mandibular molars (95.8% of first molars, 85.4% of second molars) had two separate roots; however, three roots were identified in 2.06% of first molars and 3.45% of second molars. C-shaped canals occurred 0.85% of first molars and 4.1% of second molars. Three canals were found in 79.9% of first molars and 72.8% of second molars. Most distal roots had a simple type I configuration, whereas mesial roots had more complex canal systems, with more than one canal. The most common root morphology of first and second molars is the two rooted morphology with three canals. Both the mesial and distal roots showed wide variations in canal anatomy with type IV and type I canal configuration predominating in the mesial and distal roots, respectively. Conclusion: Vertucci type I and IV canal configurations were the most prevalent in the distal and mesial roots, respectively, of both the mandibular first and second permanent molar teeth.