Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity of gemcitabine and paclitaxel combinations with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) who have progressive disease after platinum-based first-line chemotherapy. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the file records of patients treated with gemcitabine plus paclitaxel in advanced or metastatic NSCLC cases in a second-line setting. The chemotherapy schedule was as follows: gemcitabine 1500 mg/m(2) and paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) administered every two weeks. Results: Forty-eight patients (45 male, 3 female) were evaluated; stage IIIB/IV 6/42; PS0, 8.3%, PS1, 72.9%, PS2, 18.8%; median age, 56 years old (range 38-76). Six (12.5%) patients showed a partial response (PR), 13 (27.1%) stable disease (SD), and 27 (56.3%) progressive disease (PD). The median OS was 6.63 months (95% CI 4.0-9.2); the median PFS was 2.7 months (95% CI 1.8-3.6). Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxicities, including neutropenia (n=4, 8.4%), and anemia (n=3, 6.3%) were encountered, but no grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia. One patient developed febrile neutropenia. There were no interruption for reasons of toxicity and no exitus related to therapy. Conclusion: The combination of two-weekly gemcitabine plus paclitaxel was an effective and well-tolerated second-line chemotherapy regimen for advanced or metastatic NSCLC patients previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy. Although the most common and dose limiting toxicities were neutropenia and neuropathy, this regimen was tolerated well by the patients.