Adriamycin (ADR) is a chemotherapeutic drug. Its toxicities may associate with mitochondriopathy. Selenium (Se) is a trace element for essential intracellular antioxidant enzymes. However, there is lack of data related to the effect of selenium on the liver tissue of ADR-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. The study was to investigate whether Se could restore mitochondrial dysfunction of liver-exposed ADR. Rats were divided into four groups as a control, ADR, Se, co-treated ADR with Se groups. The biochemical measurements of the liver were made in mitochondrial and cytosol. ATP level and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) were measured. Total oxidant (TOS), total antioxidant (TAS) status were determined and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by using TOS and TAS. ADR increased TOS in mitochondria and also oxidative stress in mitochondria. ADR sligtly decreased MMP, and ATP level. Partial recovery of MMP by Se was able to elevate the ATP production in cotreatment of ADR with Se. TOS in mitochondria and cytosol was diminished, as well as OSI. We concluded that selenium could potentially be used against oxidative stress induced by ADR in liver, resulting from the restoration of MMP and ATP production and prevention of mitochondrial damage in vivo.