Cryopreservation Current Advances and Evaluations, Marian Quain, Editör, IntechOpen, London, ss.1-52, 2020
Low temperature has been utilized to keep living cells and tissues dormant but potentially alive for cryopreservation and biobanking with great impacts on scientific and biomedical applications. However, there is a critical contradiction between the purpose of the cryopreservation and experimental findings: the cryopreserved cells and tissues can be fatally damaged by the cryopreservation process itself. Contrary to popular belief, the challenge to the life of living cells and tissues during the cryopreservation is not their ability to endure storage at cryogenic temperatures (below −190°C); rather it is the lethality associated with mass and energy transport within an intermediate zone of low temperature (−15 to −130°C) that a cell must traverse twice, once during cooling and once during warming. This chapter will focus on (1) the mechanisms of cryoinjury and cryopretection of human sperm in cryopreservation, and (2) cryopreservation techniques and methods developed based on the understanding of the above mechanisms.