Aim The study aimed to investigate the role of cattle slaughterhouse wastewater as a possible source for the environmental distribution of Listeria monocytogenes. Methods and Results Listeria spp. isolation was performed by collecting 117 wastewater samples from four different cattle slaughterhouses in Turkey. Species-specific identification was performed biochemically, and L. monocytogenes isolates were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In all, 71 (62.2%) of the wastewater samples were found to be positive for Listeria spp., and 17 (14.9%) of these samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed that all L. monocytogenes isolates were of different pulsotypes and isolates belonged to seven different phylogenetic clusters. Multiplex PCR analysis for genoserotypes and lineage determination showed that the isolates were divided into genoserotypes IVb and IIc in Lineages I and II. Also, it has been investigated with SYBR-Green Real-time PCR whether the L. monocytogenes isolates harboured virulence genes (hly, sigB, plcA, plcB, inlA, inlB, inlC and inlJ), and it was found that all isolates were substantially positive. Antibiotic resistance profiles and MIC values of the isolates were determined, and all L. monocytogenes isolates were found susceptible to ampicillin. In contrast, two isolates were resistant to meropenem and erythromycin, and three isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Conclusion L. monocytogenes, which pose a threat to public health and resists to antibiotics effectively used in treatments, can environmentally spread via wastewater of cattle slaughterhouses. The wastewater of the food industry, which has rich microbiota, should be treated carefully, and possible environmental contamination should be prevented. Significance and Impact of Study This is the first study that investigates the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes isolated from cattle slaughterhouse wastewater and the findings represent the importance of cattle wastewater in the epidemiology of L. monocytogenes in Turkey.