The effects of rootstocks such as 'sour orange' (Citrus aurantium L. var. 'Yerli'), 'Carrizo' and 'Troyer citranges' (Citrus sinensis Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata Raf), 'Smooth Flat Seville sour orange' (Citrus spp. hybrid of uncertain origin), 'Brazilian sour orange' (Citrus aurantiam L. var. 'Brasilian'), 'Volkameriana' (Citrus volkameriana Tan. and Pasq.) and 'Calamondin' (possibly Citrus reticulate var. austerexFortunella hybrid, Swingle) on plant growth, fruit yield, and quality of 'Rio Red' grapefruit were investigated from 2008 to 2012. Rootstocks were found to have significant effects on plant growth, fruit yield, and quality. 'Rio Red' grapefruit trees budded on 'Carrizo' and 'Troyer citranges' showed higher vegetative growth parameters (canopy height, diameter, and volume) than the trees on the other rootstocks. The trees on 'Volkameriana' and 'Carrizo citrange' produced higher percentage of cumulative yield of about 55.1 and 34.3%, respectively, than the trees on 'sour orange'. 'Rio Red' grapefruit budded on 'Carrizo citrange' had higher fruit quality such as thin rind, high juice content, and more color development than the other rootstocks. 'Carrizo citrange' was the most promising rootstock for 'Rio Red' grapefruit in Dortyol, Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey.