A total of 554 cattle from the Cappadocia region were divided into 5 different groups according to vaccination and were examined for Theileria annulata by microscope and indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). The sampled cattle were checked for tick infestation. The prevalence of T. annulata was 60.5% by microscopic examination and 67.5% by IFAT. According to the microscopic examination, the prevalence of T. annulata was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the unvaccinated group. The seropositivity according to IFAT was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the unvaccinated group. The morbidity was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the unvaccinated, semi-grazed, pure breed, and >2 years age groups. The mortality was significantly higher in the unvaccinated (P < 0.001), semi-grazed (P < 0.05), pure breed (P < 0.05), and female (P < 0.001) groups. A total of 1585 tick specimens belonging to the genera Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Boophilus, and Ornithodorus were detected in 21.48% of examined cattle. The developing forms of T. annulata were determined in the H. anatolicum anatolicum ticks microscopically. Out of 554 cattle, 156 (27.61%) were diagnosed with acute tropical theileriosis. Out of these 156 cattle, 86 (56.21%) died due to the disease.