ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.24, no.34, pp.26513-26520, 2017 (SCI-Expanded)
Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a serious public threat throughout the world. PTB and smoking have a strong correlation. Malnutrition, poverty, addiction, overcrowding, illiteracy, unemployment, and poor hygienic conditions are the collective aspects for the disease progress. Pakistan is the fifth among 22 high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries and the fourth regarding multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB). The aim of study was to determine the concentration of essential and toxic elements from blood samples of smoker and nonsmoker PTB patients by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) followed by microwave acid digestion and compared with control subjects (n = 30). Eighty PTB patients were selected from different hospitals with age ranging 20-70 years. It was interpreted that the mean age among males and females was found to be 35.6 +/- 1.4 and 33.5 +/- 1.2, respectively, and the male patients were highly affected in contrast to females. Essential elements such as Mn, Fe, Zn, and Se were statistically found to be lower while Ca, Co, and Cu were found to be higher compared to the control group (p = 0.00). However, toxic elements like Al, Cr, Ni, As, Cd, and Pb were statistically elevated in smokers than nonsmokers. Further research is needed to understand the degree of the impact of essential trace elements on treatment outcome (follow-up) followed by balanced healthy nutritional supplementation along with medical therapy, consequently improving the pulmonary tuberculosis outcome and survival as well.