Thirty-seven taxa of Teloschistaceae were identified from samples collected in continental areas of Turkey. Based on previous studies, Caloplaca cerina, C. crenulatella, C.ferrarii, C. haematites and C. variabilis are considered here as heterogeneous taxa. Some poorly characterised lichens were determined with the support of their ITS nrDNA sequences. According to Blast searches, examined samples resembling C. albopruinosa and C. alociza do not group with any known taxa of Caloplaca with endolithic thallus and without anthraquinones. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to show the identities of some specimens of Caloplaca ferrarii and C. marmorata. Caloplaca haematites and some samples of C. marmorata from continental Turkey differ considerably from European populations in their phenotype. Caloplaca chelyae and C. schoeferi are similar taxa differing mainly in their ecology. Caloplaca adelphoparasitica, C. chelyae, C. conversa, C. ferrarii s. lat., C. ferrugineoides, C. interfulgens, C. juniperina, C. polycarpoides and C. sororicida are new to Turkey. The lichenicolous lichen Verrucula biatorinaria hosted by Caloplaca biatorina is also new to Turkey.