This study aimed to determine the prevalence as well as psychosocial and demographic features of migraine and tension-type headache among school children between the ages of 7 and 17, and using the International Classification of Headache Disorders II. The study was conducted during the questionnaire phase and the interview phase. The prevalence of recurrent headache was 47.5%, whereas that of primary recurrent headache was 21%. The estimated prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache were 7.2% and 7.8%, respectively. Unilateral headache, throbbing-type headache, severe headache, and the severity of the headache with physical activity were specific for migraine. Headache was significantly higher in first-degree relatives of the children with migraine compared to the children with tension-type headache (P < .0001). We determined the prevalence rates of migraine and tension-type headache and revealed the characteristics as well as the psychosocial and demographic features of migraine and tension-type headache. Sensitivity, specificity, and multivariate analysis were also evaluated.