Biomonitoring of heavy metals by Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf in Ankara (Turkey)

Yildiz A., Aksoy A., Tug G. N., Islek C., Demirezen D.

JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY, vol.60, no.1, pp.71-81, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10874-008-9109-y
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.71-81
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


The objective of this study was to determine the air pollution level of Ankara and to generate the air pollution map of this city by using Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf as a biomonitor. Lichen samples were collected from unpolluted area at Yaprakli Mountains, Cankiri in November 2002 and transplanted to 27 localities in Ankara. Lichen samples were retrieved following an exposure of 3 and 6 months. Heavy metal, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, contents were determined by using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). The chlorophyll a and b contents were determined by using DMSO method. The increase in Ni, Pb, Zn and chlorophyll a content of the specimens were statistically important. All the increases and decreases in the variables could be explained by the environmental stress like pollution, but it is hard to say that this is the only reason of these changes, also climatic conditions, seasons, strength of the light and the physiological status of the plant itself effective on these changes. According to the results of heavy metal analysis Pseudevernia furfuracea continued to accumulate heavy metals and worked well as a biomonitor. The air pollution level of Ankara shows great variations because of the great area of the city.