The aim of this study was to investigate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) serology and EBV DNA in the patients with bone marrow transplantation. In the current study, 128 patients with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were included in Hematology-Oncology Department of Medical Faculty, Erciyes University between June 2005 and October 2009. In order to evaluate EBV serology and DNA, 357 samples obtained from the patients were studied with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The components of EBV serology were anti-Ebstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 IgG, anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG and IgM. EBV seropositivity was found in 98.4% of the samples. EBV DNA positivity was detected in 13.3% of the patients. High viral load was only seen in one patient among all the EBV DNA positivity. No patient showed any symptoms regarding EBV virus and admitted with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. In conclusion, for the diagnosis and follow up of EBV infections in patients with BMT, detection of EBV DNA by PCR method is also beneficial in addition to serological tests regarding EBV.