Economic inequality is a global phenomenon with all-encompassing implications. While inequality affects both men and women, due to the socially ascribed gender roles and expectations women are more prone to experience disparities. Based on a narrative review, the aim of this article is to provide a primer on four selected theories related to gender-based economic inequalities. The first section provides a brief overview of a) sexual division of labor b) the nimble fingers theory c) glass wall and glass ceiling effects and d) female-headed households and the feminization of poverty. The final section demonstrates the implications of these paradoxical economic phenomena in the Turkish context. The article explains how women from diverse socio-economic backgrounds are prone to labor market inequalities because of the intricate nature of structural biases. A plethora of literature is available on the Turkish context, highlighting the nuances of economic participation. The present article complements the existing body of literature, however, it adds a new dimension by offering the theoretical underpinnings behind the economic inequalities endured by Turkish women. Future research could explore the empirical evidence on the dynamics of economic disparity while considering the theoretical concepts discussed in this article.