Bulut S., Gökalp Z.

Current Trends in Natural Sciences, vol.11, no.21, pp.372-380, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)


The resources necessary for food production have shown a disquieting deterioration during the last three decades. Modern intensive agriculture has an adverse effect not only on the physical environment but also on human health. On the other hand, 'Sustainable Agricultural Systems', which has gained importance in recent years, deals with both the protection of natural resources and the increase in plant production. In these systems, production is ensured by directing the resources obtained from the system cycle, not the chemicals and inputs that harm human, plant and environmental health, and quality healthy products are obtained. In 'Organic Farming', which is one of the sustainable agricultural systems, it is aimed to cause the least damage to the environment by producing healthy foods without disturbing the natural balance. The risk of pollution is less because less economic input is used in these and similar protected sustainable agricultural systems. While the inputs used in agricultural production stage increase the productivity of the product produced per unit area and make it more resistant to diseases and pests, they can have negative effects on the living things in the immediate vicinity and the ecosystem. While the development of agriculture in a region positively affects the natural life, oxygen production and climate in the region, inorganic nitrate pollution, pesticide pollution and salinity problems can be listed as the negative effects of agriculture on the environment, especially in regions where intensive agriculture is practiced. Also, agricultural water use, application of fertilizers and pesticides may negatively affect the water courses, deforestation, and crop and animal raising may result in greenhouse gas emissions, unsuitable agricultural practices may have detrimental impacts on soil, genetic resources and biodiversity. In order to ensure sustainability in agriculture, by abandoning the agricultural production methods based on excessive chemical pesticides and fertilizers that the producers have applied until now; an economical fertilization, preserving the organic matter ratio of the soil by preventing stubble fires, reduced tillage, combating diseases, pests and weeds in integration with a suitable crop rotation are of great importance