The Morphology of the Cervico-thoracic Sympathetic System in Donkeys (Equus asinus L.)

Ozgel O., Duzler A., Dursun N., Beyaz F.

ANATOMIA HISTOLOGIA EMBRYOLOGIA, vol.38, no.2, pp.139-144, 2009 (SCI-Expanded) identifier


Five adult donkeys of both sexes, used in applied anatomy classes, and perfused with formalin for teaching purposes, constituted the study material. Ganglion cervicale caudale of the examined materials has observed to exhibit individually variable situation as to extend on the left side of the median line, at the alignment of the first and second intercostal spaces and on the right side between the level of the first and third costa. The ganglion extended more caudally on the right side of median line. The lateral surface of the ganglion was determined to be covered with the m. scalenus medius. On the both sides of the median plane, the ganglion cervicale caudale was seen to be situated on the lateral surface of the m. longus colli. On the left side, the ganglion overlapped the oesophagus in two cadavers and on the right side it was situated within a groove between the m. longus colli and trachea in three cadavers. The rami communicantes received by the ganglion cervicale caudale originated from the eighth cervical and first thoracic spinal segments. The ganglion cervicale caudale was formed by the coalescence of the last cervical and first three thoracic sympathetic ganglia. The ganglion cervicale caudale gave off branches that formed the rami communicantes, plexus cardiacus, n. vertebralis and ansa subclavia. One branch extended from the ganglion to the plexus brachialis. in one specimen, two sympathetic-parasympathetic communicating branches were observed to extend from the ansa subclavia and near by the origin of the truncus sympathicus to the n. vagus. In one of the donkeys examined, a branch originating from the ganglion cervicale caudale on the left side of the median plane was determined to end on the ligamentum arteriosum. A microscopic ganglion structure suggesting the existence of the ganglion cervicale medium was determined in a donkey.