© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. part of Springer Nature.This is the first study investigating the changes in some gene expressions related to the TLR pathway in vivo in sheep. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) molecules were administrated separately and in combination to the Akkaraman lambs via intranasal route. For this purpose, 28 lambs were distributed into four groups (LPS, LTA, LPS + LTA, and control, n = 7). Blood samples were collected to isolate the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at 24 h and on day 7. Expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, TRAF6, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, NF-κß, and IFN-γ genes were determined by qRT-PCR. Increases were determined in the expression data of TLR2 [LPS (P < 0.05) and LTA + LPS (P < 0.01)], TLR4 [LTA + LPS (P < 0.05)], TNF-α, IL-10 [LTA + LPS (P < 0.05)], and IFN-γ genes in all groups in the mRNA expression analysis of PBMCs isolated at 24 h whereas decreases were determined in the expression levels of these genes on day 7. The combination of LPS + LTA stimulated lamb PBMCs more effectively than separate administration of LPS and LTA at 24 h. Therefore, this article may contribute to the understanding the host-pathogen interaction of respiratory-transmitted bacterial diseases concerning PBMCs at 24 h and on day 7. Also this study may contribute to the dose adjustment for bacterial vaccine studies in sheep. Experimental application doses will be helpful for in vivo and in vitro drug and vaccine development studies in the fields of pharmacology and microbiology.