Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that has been classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The genotoxic effects of cadmium oxide (CdO) were investigated in cultured dog lymphocytes after a short-term oral CdO administration by the micronucleus (MN) test. The dogs were given 10 mg CdO/kg body weight per day for 3 and 28 d, respectively group I (n = 7) and group II (n = 6). Blood samples were collected at the beginning of feeding and at 4 and 29 d after Cd administration and cultured for 72 h. Whereas no significant increase in the MN frequency in group I was observed (p = 0.398), a significant MN induction with CdO was found in group II (p = 0.028) when compared with initial MN frequencies of dogs in both groups. Our results suggest that CdO might be directly and/or indirectly genotoxic after a monthly oral administration of CdO in dogs.