The ocular pyogranulomatous lesion in a Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) from the Antarctic Peninsula: evaluation of microbiological and histopathological analysis outcomes


Çakır Bayram L. , Abay S. , Satıcıoğlu İ. B. , Güvenç T., Ekebaş G. , Aydın F.

VETERINARY RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS, vol.45, no.2-3, pp.143-158, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 45 Issue: 2-3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11259-021-09796-1
  • Title of Journal : VETERINARY RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
  • Page Numbers: pp.143-158
  • Keywords: Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), Ocular exfoliative cytology, Pyogranulomatous inflammation, Putative novel bacteria, Inflammatory mediators, Immunohistochemistry, OPHTHALMIC DIAGNOSTIC-TESTS, INTRAOCULAR-PRESSURE, ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE, BACTERIAL-FLORA, PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS, AVIAN OPHTHALMOLOGY, SURFACE DISEASE, TEAR PRODUCTION, CYTOLOGY, EYE

Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to present the results of microbiological, cytological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses of ocular samples from an Antarctic (Ardley Island, King George Island) Gentoo penguin chick (Pygoscelis papua) with a pyogranulomatous lesion in the right eye. Samples were taken from both the healthy left eye and the lesion in the right eye. Conventional culture methods and phenotypic and molecular tests were used for bacterial isolation and identification, respectively. None of the isolates could be identified phenotypically. As a result, four of the five isolates obtained from the right eye were considered to belong to putative novel bacterial species and taxa as their similarity to GenBank data was below 98.75%. The isolates were considered to be Pasteurellaceae bacterium, Corynebacterium ciconiae, Cardiobacteriaceae bacterium, Actinomyces sp., and Dermabacteraceae bacterium. The only isolate from the left eye was identified as Psychrobacter pygoscelis. The cytological analysis demonstrated cell infiltrates composed mostly of degenerate heterophils, reactive macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Based on histopathological findings, the lesion was defined as a typical pyogranulomatous lesion. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the granuloma was positive for TNF-alpha, IL-4, MMP-9, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. This is the first documented report of the unilateral pyogranulomatous ocular lesion in a Gentoo penguin chick, living in its natural habitat in Antarctica. This report also describes the isolation of four bacteria from the infected eye, which are considered to belong to novel Genus, species, or taxa. The primary bacterial pathogen that caused the ocular lesion was not able to be detected and remains unclear.