The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of different oral chloral hydrate and dexmedetomidine doses used for sedation during electroencephalography (EEG) in children. One hundred sixty children aged 1 to 9 years with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II who were uncooperative during EEG recording or who were referred to our electrodiagnostic unit for sleep EEG were included to the study. The patients were randomly assigned into 4 groups. In groups D1 and D2, patients received oral dexmedetomidine doses of 2 and 3 mu g/kg, respectively. In group C1 and C2, patients received oral chloral hydrate doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The induction time was significantly shorter in group C2 compared with other groups (P = .000). The rate of adverse effects was significantly higher in group C2 compared with the dexmedetomidine groups (D1 and D2; P = .004). In conclusion, dexmedetomidine can be used safely for sedation during EEG in children.