The legal structure that governs animal use in Turkey is in line with that of the European Union (EU). In 2004, legislation on the use of animals for experimental and other scientific purposes was established in Turkey for the first time. The present study aimed to compare the data on experimental animal use in Turkey (during the period 2008–2017) with similar reports from selected countries (the United States, Australia, Canada and the EU). In Turkey, a total of 2,104,828 animals were used for experimental and other scientific purposes during 2008–2017. Of the animals used, 758,887 were fish (36%), 433,417 rats (21%), 302,512 birds other than quail (14%) and 285,531 mice (13%). According to a breakdown by purpose for use, in Turkey during 2009–2017, out of a total number of 1,955,307 animals used, 56% were for fundamental biological studies, with a high proportion used for research on animal disease. Compared with the other countries, fewer animals were used in Turkey although the national trend seems to indicate that the number is fluctuating. Further studies are required to uncover the reasons behind this reduced animal use in Turkey, as compared to other countries.