The present study in which 42 female rats, each weighing 200-250 g, were used covered a period of 21 days. The animals were divided into six groups. The first group served as the control group, whereas Group 2 was administered propolis at a dose of 200mg/kg/bw in drinking water for 21 days. Group 3 was first provided with normal drinking water for a period of 14 days, and was subsequently administered propolis at a dose of 200mg/kg/bw in drinking water for 7 days. Group 4 was first given normal drinking water for 14 days, and was secondly administered 100 ppm fluoride as a sodium fluoride in drinking water for 7 days. Group 5 was first administered propolis alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg/bw in drinking water for 14 days, and was secondly administered 100 ppm fluoride in association with 200 mg/kg/bw propolis for 7 days. Finally, Group 6 was first provided with normal drinking water for 14 days, and was secondly administered 100 ppm fluoride in association 200 mg/kg/bw propolis for a period of 7 days. At the end of the 21 st day, blood samples were collected from the heart of each animal into both heparinised tubes and tubes without anticoagulants. Glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, and uric acid levels, and asparlate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the serum, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the plasma, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. When compared to the control group, statistical differences were determined to exist with respect to oxidative stress parameters which involved increase in MDA levels in Groups 4-6, decrease in SOD activity in Groups 4 and 6, increase in CAT activity in Groups 5 and 6, and decrease in GSH-Px activity in Groups 4 and 6. Furthermore, in comparison to the control group, significant differences were observed with respect to certain serum biochemical parameters, including decrease in glucose levels in Groups 5 and 6, decrease in triglyceride levels in Groups 2 and 4, decrease in cholesterol levels in Groups 2 and 5, decrease in the total protein level of Groups 4-6, decrease in the ALT activity of Groups 5 and 6, increase in the AST activity of Group 4, decrease in the ALP activity of Groups 2-6 and increase in the uric acid level of Group 2. In the groups that were administered propolis in association with fluoride, improvement was observed in some oxidative stress parameters and certain other biochemical parameters. Changes determined in the oxidative stress parameters (especially MDA and SOD) were indicative of the anti-radical activity of propolis on the free radicals generated by sodium fluoride. However, the values not drawing completely close to those of the control group can be explained with propolis not being able to completely eliminate the free radicals and the other adverse effects generated by fluoride. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.