SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, vol.133, pp.83-97, 1993 (SCI-Expanded)
A total of 166 atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from three different locations in the city of Kayseri, Central Anatolia, Turkey, during the period from January 1986 to October, 1988. The aerosol samples were analyzed for Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The results indicated that the aerosol elemental composition at Kayseri is mainly dominated by secondary sulfates, reaching an average concentration of up to 34 μg m−3. It was observed a much higher elemental concentration of those species associated with anthropogenic activities, compared with those from another urban airshed with similar characteristics. Enrichment factor calculations showed that the anomalously enriched elements were S, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. The seasonal variability of the elemental concentrations was studied using Si and S. The former was thought to be representative of a natural aerosol, while the latter was associated with anthropogenically generated elements. Multivariate analysis of the data base containing the elemental concentrations allowed the identification of five different aerosol sources, namely: secondary sulfates, residual oil combustion, industrial emissions, car exhaust and soil dust.