DFT and MD investigations of the biomolecules of phenothiazine derivatives: interactions with gold and water molecules and investigations in search of effective drug for SARS-CoV-2.

Al-Otaibi J. S., Mary Y. S., Mary S., Trivedi R., Chakraborty B., Yadav R., ...More

Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics, vol.41, no.10, pp.4522-4533, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 41 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/07391102.2022.2068649
  • Journal Name: Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.4522-4533
  • Keywords: DFT, MD simulations, phenothiazine, SARS-CoV-2, DYNAMICS, PREVENTION, REACTIVITY, COVID-19, DOCKING, DYES
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


Theoretical analyses of two phenothiazine derivatives, 10-[3-(dimethylamino)-2-methylpropyl]phenothiazine-2-carbonitrile (CYM) and 2-[4-[3-(2-chlorophenothiazin-10-yl)propyl]piperazin-1-yl]ethanol (PAZ) are reported using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Spectroscopic studies, different electronic and chemical parameters are predicted. Red and yellow in electrostatic potential plot is in rings and oxygen atom in PAZ and C equivalent to N and rings in CYM are sensitive to nucleophilic attacks. The blue in hydrogen atoms refer to electrophilic attack in both PAZ and CYM. Stability of the protein-ligand complex formed with these derivatives and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was investigated using MD simulation. Radius of gyration of C-alpha atom of 6VW1 displayed the conformational convergence toward a compact structure leading to stable 6VW1-ligand complex which are also in agreement with root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) values. Localized area predicts reactive sites for Au and H2O molecules interaction with these compounds for further practical applications. Charge density is localized on both molecules and also tries to move toward Au-Au dimer and water molecule and such they are expected to contribute to the sensing performance. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma