Lesions involving the anterior skull base and sphenoclival region are difficult surgical problems. This paper presents surgical details, pitfalls, avoidances and our experiences in the surgical treatment of lesions of the anterior skull base using neuronavigation. Between 1999 and 2003, 33 patients with pathology of the anterior skull base were operated on via the traditional transbasal and the extended transbasal approach. A passive-marker-based neuronavigation system has been used for intraoperative image guidance since April 2000. The patients consisted of 11 men and 22 women. Their ages ranged from 3 to 76 years, with a mean of 41 years. The lesions for which the approach was used included 9 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae and 24 neoplastic lesions including meningioma (16 cases), metastasis (3 cases), chordoma (3 cases), plasmacytoma. (I case), and osteoma (1 case). Gross total removal of the tumors was accomplished in 22 out of 24 patients with tumor (91.6%). Postoperative complications include CSF leakage (2 cases), infection (2 cases) and transient impaired vision (1 case). One patient (3%) died postoperatively from hypothalamic dysfunction after removal of a benign tumor extending to the anterior third ventricle. Despite the incidence of postoperative infection and the high rate of CSF leakage and death, it is possible to obtain long-term survival for patients with tumors previously considered challenging and difficult surgical problems.